The modern history of Serbia in documents of intermunicipal archives

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Аннотация / Annotation
В статье исследуются особенности фондов межопштинских (межмуниципальных) исторических архивов Республики Сербия, содержащих документы по истории периода Нового времени, рассказывается о сети архивных учреждений в Сербии, приводится характеристика содержимого основных фондов и анализируется степень их применимости к современным историческим исследованиям по истории региона указанного периода.
The present article offers a brief review of the archive materials from the Serbian historical archives which possess the documents from the period of Modern History. It describes the archives network in Serbia, characterizes the corpus of documents and analyses their applicability to the contemporary researches in this discipline.

Ключевые слова / Keywords
Архивоведение, Сербия, архивная сеть, административно-территориальное устройство, општина, источниковая база. Serbia, archives network, administrative-territorial system, opshtina (municipality), source base.

The history of Serbia of the period of New time in last years draws special attention of historians. This results from the fact that many problems which this state had to face in last third XIX-beginning ХХ century, have found again urgency. It is a question of the problems connected with political culture, with the international and interethnic relations and with other important questions. In this connection researchers have a requirement of attraction to work of historical sources that, in turn, leads to necessity of the reference to funds of historical archives of Serbia.
The vigorous activity on gathering of archival materials and their ordering has begun after the World War II termination. In 1948 in republic Serbia territory it has been opened sixteen archives. The modern archival network of Serbia consists of more than thirty historical archives on all country.
It is important to notice that in New time some territories of modern Serbia were in structure of other state formations.

With finding of autonomy by Serbia in 1833, in the released territories the Serbian system territorially-administrative division has extended. Under the decision of Skupshchiny of 1834 the territory of the country was divided on some areas, districts and cuts. However after one year areas have been abolished, and the princedom territory was divided into districts, cuts and municipalities. Into district entered on 3-5 cuts, and almost each settlement represented municipality. Such division remained throughout all XIX century, changes underwent only names, borders and quantity of these units.
Funds of central and local authorities, as a rule, consist of documents district, areas and municipality boards, and also judicial bodies.
One of the richest meetings of written monuments the historical archive of Belgrad containing more 13 200 documents, on stories of the Serbian capital possesses. From the end of XVII century Belgrad represented struggle arena between the Austrians, Turks and Serbs. Capital of the Serbian princedom it became only in 1841 In first half ХХ century in structure of Belgrad Zemun has entered and there was a severe need in preservation of invaluable documents of Zemunsky city council (since 1749). During bombardments of a city by forces of the NATO in May, 1999 the part of a building of archive has been destroyed, the set of important documents is destroyed and damaged. For today in archive it is stored nearby 1 400 the materials containing data on stories of edge Shumadija.

In territory of the Central Serbia there are historical archives in cities: Valevo, Kralevo, Krushevats, Prokuple, Pirot, Smederevsky Palanka, Smederevo and Negotin. In them also there are documents XIX – beginnings ХХ in, reflecting the past of these corners of the country.
Common feature for all archives, especially in the south of the country, is small number of written sources on stories of Serbia till the moment of finding by it of independence in 1878 More essential information on political and social and economic development of the country funds intermunicipal archives show, since 1870-1880th when life of the Serbian society was characterized by intensive state building in the spirit of europeanization that was expressed in development of an education system, public health services, market economy, transport, public associations and so forth Reflecting these processes, materials межопштинских archives, allow to get data on the political, economic and spiritual past of the Serbian society.

You can read completely article in the russian historic-archival magazine “The Herald of an Archivist”. Read more about terms of subscription here.

Полностью материал публикуется в российском историко-архивоведческом журнале ВЕСТНИК АРХИВИСТА. Ознакомьтесь с условиями подписки здесь.