Opening of foreign consulates in Siberia and in east of the Russian empire in second half XIX – XX centuries. On documents of the State Archive of Irkutsk Region

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Аннотация / Annotation
В статье исследуются проблемы открытия в Сибири и на Дальнем Востоке России иностранных консульств. На основе документов, хранящихся в Государственном архиве Иркутской области, рассказывается об инициативах иностранных предпринимателей и официальных лиц зарубежных стран по открытию консульств в регионе. Рассматривается процесс создания иностранных консульств российской администрацией, анализируется позиция регионального звена российских властей по проблеме формирования иностранного институционального представительства в Сибири и на Дальнем востоке России.
In article the opening question in Siberia and in the Far East Russia foreign consulates is considered. On the basis of studying of the documents stored in funds of the State archive of the Irkutsk region, it is told about initiatives of foreign businessmen and officials of foreign countries on opening of consulates in region. Process of discussion of a question of creation of foreign consulates in corridors of the Russian administration is considered, the position of a regional link of the Russian authorities on a problem of formation of foreign institutional representation in Siberia and in the Far East Russia is analyzed.

Ключевые слова / Keywords
Архив, источник, консульство, вице-консул, генеральное консульство, генерал-губернатор, военный губернатор, департамент полиции, МИД России. Archive source, consulates, the vice-consul, consulate general, the governor general, the military governor, police department, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia.

Till second half of XIX century Siberia and the Far East of Russian Empire have been closed for foreigners. But the introduction of Russia on a capitalism way, retraction of the country in the international system of division of labor, penetration of the foreign capital into the country with all sharpness the question on cancellation of interdictions was designated.
On June, 29th, 1860 the imperial decree about cancellation of restrictions for foreigners has followed at visiting of Eastern Siberia. Opening of new banks would involve the deposit capital and has raised business activity of citizens of the North American United States (USA). Extreme ambassador USA in Petersburg Pikkens has addressed on July, 23rd, 1860 in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia on the case of establishment of the American consulate general on Amur.
Subsequently the new military governor of Seaside area rear admiral Furugelm and the governor general of Eastern Siberia lieutenant general M.S. Korsakov recommended to struggle with granting to what foreign businessmen or legal privileges, including in the form of consular support. It was offered to resolve presence at Nikolaevsk instead of consuls of informal commercial agents.
The problem of consulates has been lifted once again in 1875 the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. Then, after the conclusion of the St.-Petersburg contract of the 1875 which have transferred to Russia a southern part of Sakhalin, and Japan Kuriles, the government has requested the governor general of Eastern Siberia about admission possibility in edge of the Japanese consular agent or opening even official consular branch. Simultaneously with the Japanese initiative the inquiry of the American and German governments concerning opening in Petropavlovsk and Vladivostok of consulates has followed.
In 1881 when the Russian ambassador Weber has addressed in the Chinese Ministerial council with the request for the departure permission to Russia worker from Chifu, Whether Hunchzhan has informed on the readiness to solve this question. From its part he has suggested to admit the Chinese consul so that that submitted not to the Chinese ambassador, and personally to Hunchzhanu Lee in Vladivostok.
On February, 12th, 1882 the Asian department the Ministry of Foreign Affairs has notified the governor general of Eastern Siberia D.G. Anuchin that the Chinese ambassador petitions for consulate opening. On February, 22nd, 1882 the governor general has agreed only to the admission of the Chinese commercial agent.

On October, 20th, 1896 the Russian government has decided to admit Pavel Meyer to discharge of duties of the commercial agent of Germany in the Far East. Meyer has replaced Adolf Dattana.
On December, 27th, 1895 at the initiative of the French embassy in St.-Petersburg the question on establishment in Vladivostok the French commercial agency has been solved. In 1879 Japanese diplomacy has achieved essential success. Japan has supported the Russian side in the Russian-Chinese conflict of 1879. Therefore Alexander II, contrary to opinion of the Seaside military governor, the decree from July, 2nd, 1879 has deigned «to recognize Kobajasi Tan Igi as the Japanese vice-consul in port Korsakov, on island Sakhalin». Subsequently this person for the first time recognized as the official representative of foreign country, operating in territory of Russian Far East, Kuze Guen has replaced. Since June, 17th, 1883 he has headed vice-consulate in Korsakovsky port. On January, 18th, 1894 the vice-consul in Korsakovke became Suzuki.
The following splash in foreign requirements about opening of consular establishments in region has begun on termination of building of the Trans-Siberian highway which even more closely have involved Western and the Eastern Siberia in system in-Russian and international trade.
On December, 16th, 1907 in Irkutsk there was openly Belgian consulate. On March, 23rd, 1907 by the French commercial agent in Irkutsk Vilmont has been appointed.
On March, 20th, 1908 in Irkutsk the Spanish consulate in head with count Vinozoj has opened.
On March, 9th, 1909 in Omsk the Swedish consulate in which head there was consul K.F.Lang has been founded, and on November, 3rd, 1910 in Krasnoyarsk the vice-consulate of Great Britain led by Goratsy Iosifovich Stosard Sykes has been opened.

On March, 5th, 1911 in Irkutsk the Greek trade mission has opened, and E. Marinakis became the vice-consul, the dealer of 47 years living in Irkutsk since 1900 on May, 2nd, 1911 in Tomsk the Dutch consulate led by R.E. Stang has opened.
On January, 30th, 1912 in Tomsk there was openly German consulate led by the diplomat R. Shtang.
On October, 7th, 1913 the Norwegian consul in Krasnoyarsk had been appointed I.M. Leed, the director of trading association.
The big activity in business of opening of consulates in the east of Russia was developed by Japan. On the basis of 15 items of the Contract on trade and navigation of 1907 they have demanded at Russian the Ministry of Foreign Affairs to authorize for opening of Japanese consulates in Irkutsk, Chita, Blagoveshchensk and Khabarovsk.
On February, 13th, 1915 the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia informed the Amur governor general that the Japanese government has addressed to Petersburg with the request for consulate establishment in Irkutsk (the consulate in Vladivostok and Nikolaevsk earlier has been opened). It was recommended to Irkutsk, owing to political circumstances – Japan was the ally of Russia in war, to support consulate opening.
On June, 24th, 1915 the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia has notified the Irkutsk governor general that the Chinese government, after Japanese, petitioned for the permission to open consulate general in Kyakhta and consulates in Irkutsk and Chita. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs assumed to reject the request for establishment of consulates in Kyakhta and Chita as in these cities of foreign consulates wasn't. As to Irkutsk it was supposed to allow to open Japanese and Chinese consulates.

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