Pollution of the environment (by J.М. Grushko’s research). By materials of the State Archive of the Irkutsk region

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Annotation / Аннотация

The article is about J.M.Grushko's and his employees scientific activity in the area of research and protection of the population of the Irkutsk region against industrial pollution. It’s also a question of preservation of unique environment in region.

В статье анализируется научная деятельность Я.М. Грушко и его сотрудников в области изучения и защиты населения Иркутской области от промышленного загрязнения, сохранения уникальной окружающей среды в области.

Keywords / Ключевые слова

Ecology, archives, Grushko J.M., the Baikal pulp-and-paper industrial complex, Baikal.

Экология, архивы, Грушко Я.М., Байкальский целлюлозно-бумажный комбинат, Байкал.

Pollution of environmental is the one of the main problems of a contemporary society. Scientists from different schools explore the problems of ecological safety more than half of century. By the beginnings of creation of ecological service of the Irkutsk region is Jacob Mihajlovich Grushko, the doctor of medical sciences, the professor and the head the department of the general hygiene of Irkutsk State Medical Institute.

Since 1939 he worked as a researcher of Institute of municipal hygiene in Moscow and combined job as the senior health inspector of All-Soviet-Union sanitary inspection of Narkomzdrav of the USSR. 1941-1942 – he worked in Narkomzdrav of the USSR. At this time worked in the Central State Sanitary Inspection of Narkomzdrav of the USSR outstanding researches, among them professors A.N.Sysin, E.A.Bragin, etc. Since 1944 J.M.Grushko's scientific and labour activity is connected with Irkutsk. He worked in Irkutsk Medical Institute as the head of the chair of municipal hygiene. He published over 400 research works, including 6 monographies, among them – “Chromium compounds and preventive maintenance of poisonings with them”, “Harmful organic connections in industrial sewage”, “Poisonous metals and their inorganic compounds in industrial sewage”, etc.

The main subject of research works of J.M.Grushko is the hygiene of water and water supply of settlements, and also hygienic rationing of harmful substances in environment. This theme finds the important application not only in public health services practice, but also in working out of ecological safety of the population of the Irkutsk region.

In the treatise “Comparative research of pollution of atmospheric air by cancerogenic substance (3,4 –benzopyrene) in Irkutsk and Angarsk” Grushko ascertains that Irkutsk because a city old, industrial and residential zones are not separated from each other, all is subject to pollution of atmospheric air by soot.

Research in protection of water resources of the Irkutsk region against pollution is one more direction of explore activity of the scientist. In the report “Hygienic problems in building of the Bratskiy Industrial Complex” he considered a problem of water supply of the population of this region because it is located in a down-stream of already working Irkutsko-Cheremhovskiy industrial complex, which in the long term will dump to Angara more than 2 million cubic metre of sewage.

In 1980th it has been established in the first research works of scientists in definition of cancerogenic substances in an ecosystem of Baikal, that pollution of water and ground adjournment occurs mainly around the Baikal pulp-and-paper industrial complex. Analyses of the Institute of the biology, which realized in the year 1992, have shown that the highest concentration of carcinogen are found out in objects in the Kultuksky mooring around storage of mineral oil and in places of dump of sewage BCBK.