In the help to serious discoveries

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Annotation / Аннотация
The review of funds and the publication of archival documents of branch RGANTD. Documents contain the description of scientific and design researches and inventions in the field of aviation technics. Many documents are declassified and introduced in a scientific turn for the first time. Exclusive interest of historians and experts will cause data on contacts of CIAM and the aviation enterprises of Germany in development of aviation technics, application materials on the inventions developed by the largest founders of the Soviet aviation technics. The one chapter is devoted the repressive policy concerning aviation experts in 1920-e-1940th, their self-denying work in the conditions of imprisonment.
Рецензируемый труд представляет тематический обзор фондов и публикацию архивных документов филиала РГАНТД, содержащих описание научных и конструкторских исследований и изобретений в области авиационной техники. Многие документы рассекречены и вводятся в научный оборот впервые. Исключительный интерес историков и специалистов вызовут сведения о контактах ЦИАМ и авиационных предприятий Германии в освоении авиационной техники, заявочные материалы на изобретения, разработанные крупнейшими создателями советской авиационной техники, а также немецких авиаконструкторов Г.Юнкерса, К.Дорнье и др. Отдельная глава посвящена репрессивной политике в отношении авиационных специалистов в 1920-е–1940-е гг., их самоотверженной работе в условиях тюремного заключения.

Keywords / Ключевые слова
RGANTD, inventions, the aviation technics in the USSR, application materials, rocket engines, planes, arms, reprisals, patents, German planes, German aircraft designers, the German aviation firms. РГАНТД, изобретения, авиационная техника в СССР, заявочные материалы, ракетные двигатели, самолеты, вооружение, репрессии, патенты, немецкие самолеты, немецкие авиаконструкторы, германские авиационные фирмы.

In branch of the Russian state archive of the scientific and technical documentation in Samara a significant amount of materials on stories of development of aviation technics in the USSR is collected. The part of documents is declassified, therefore there were accessible rather interesting data. Materials are stored in branch RGANTD, Authors of these materials: Tsiolkovsky, Antons, Vetchinkin, Ilyushin, Miles, Mikulin, Mjasishchev, Polikarpov, Tumansky, Tupolev, Jakovlev. Each of them - the largest founder of aviation technics known not only in Russia, but also abroad. Dudakov and Konstantinov have taken out the patent «On the device with the rocket engine for simplification of launch of planes» (1930). But only in ten years starting accelerators have received wide application. In the given work the first invention of Antonov is well described. He has taken out the patent still the student. Decisions of problems of durability of planes with growth of their speed are well described. Reports are stored in branch RGANTD on tests for durability of planes and for methods of engineering calculations of their designs.

In the USSR since 1932 the collective of All-Union institute of aviation materials technology (VIAM) was engaged in problems of aviation materials technology.At this institute the high-strength steel, the transparent reservation has been developed for a glass cover of planes, fibre, and then and soft fuel tanks. The aviation arms have the features connected not only with necessity to get to quickly moving target that demands the decision of size of "anticipation". Therefore the pilot "aims" by plane. Practice has shown that aviation machine guns and guns should have a number and other features connected by that the pilot at shooting can't stop control of airplane. In work the description of variety of workings out of the aviation weapon which has received patents or copyright certificates is given. Including synchronous variants and guns, and machine guns, and variety of workings out have been started in a batch production. The large-caliber gun on attack plane IL-2 was successfully used for defeat of the land purposes, including and armor (tanks "Tiger" and "Panther"). Over all works on creation, a batch production and fighting application of large-caliber guns in aircraft Nudelman who posesses authorship and other workings out of the domestic weapon supervised.
Leading aviation experts worked in the conditions of imprisonment.

The sixth chapter of the book contains a number of the interesting data. In branch RGANTD on constant storage there is 44 business with application materials on inventions of known German designer Junkers (1926-1931). 17 patents, among them «the Metal wing for the plane», "Seaplane", «the Adaptation for screw installation, in particular for flying machines», «the Device for placing of marksmen and the weapon on fast-moving crews, in particular by planes» and others are given out. German aircraft designer K. Dorne has patented six inventions in the USSR. Patents on «the Flying machine with wings», «the Float for flying machines» have been given out it, etc. In 1940 experts CIAM have visited a number of the aviation enterprises of Germany for the purpose of acquaintance and concerning equipment purchase. All planes were bought with the arms and equipment complete set, including guns, machine guns and bombs, with a sight and radio station. The basic center of test of German planes was scientific research institute of the Air Forces of Red army. In May - October 1940 there studying fly-tactical characteristics of arms and the equipment of German planes has been organized. Data on test of German planes Messershmitt, Hejnkel, Fokke-Vulf isn't less interesting, Dorne and the Cadet in laboratory are nude in 1940.

Value of the given work consists that she gives the chance to many experts to get acquainted with sources of rather important scientific and design undertakings of known scientists and designers about which they didn't know, and at times and couldn't know! There is no doubt that the interested and thoughtful scientist or the designer on remains of the description of workings out of the predecessor can find the decision of an essential modern problem or find out the beginning of a way in absolutely unknown.

You can read completely article in the russian historic-archival magazine “The Herald of an Archivist”. Read more about terms of subscription here.

Полностью материал публикуется в российском историко-архивоведческом журнале ВЕСТНИК АРХИВИСТА. Ознакомьтесь с условиями подписки здесь.